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Clinical manifestations of nephrotic syndrom

  Clinical manifestations of nephrotic syndrom

  1.Heavy proteinuria

  Heavy proteinuria is the most important clinical manifestations of NS patients, but also the most basic pathophysiological mechanism of nephrotic syndrome. A large number of proteinuria is the output of adult urinary protein >3.5g/d. Under normal physiological conditions, glomerular filtration membrane has a molecular barrier and a charge barrier, resulting in an increase in the content of protein in the urine.

  2.Hypoproteinemia

  Plasma albumin decreased to <30g/L. At NS, a large amount of albumin was lost from the urine, which promoted the compensatory synthesis of hepatic albumin and increased the decomposition of renal tubule. When the increase in albumin synthesis in liver is not sufficient to overcome the loss and decomposition, hypoalbuminemia. In addition, NS patients due to gastrointestinal mucosal edema leading to poor appetite, insufficient protein intake, malabsorption or loss, also aggravate hypoproteinemia.

  3.Edema

  NS, hypoalbuminemia, plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased, so that the water from the vascular cavity into the interstitial space, is the basic cause of NS edema. Recent studies have shown that about 50% of patients with normal or increased blood volume, plasma renin levels are normal or decreased, suggesting that some of the original in the kidney sodium, water retention factors play a role in the pathogenesis of NS edema.

  4.Hyperlipidemia

  The cause of NS complicated with hyperlipidemia is not fully elucidated. High cholesterol and (or) hypertriglyceridemia, elevated serum LDL, VLDL and lipoprotein (alpha) concentrations, often associated with hypoproteinemia. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly due to an increase in the synthesis of lipoproteins in the liver, but a decrease in the peripheral circulation is also part of the role. Hypertriglyceridemia is mainly due to the decomposition of metabolic disorders, liver synthesis increased as a secondary factor.

Tags: edema proteinuria Hypoproteine Hyperlipidem

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