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Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms
Patients with lupus nephritis may report the following:
Other symptoms of active SLE (eg, fatigue, fever, rash, arthritis, serositis, or central nervous system [CNS] disease); these are more common with focal proliferative and diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis
Asymptomatic lupus nephritis – During regular follow-up, laboratory abnormalities suggest active lupus nephritis; this is more typical of mesangial or membranous lupus nephritis
Active nephritis – Peripheral edema secondary to hypertension or hypoalbuminemia; extreme peripheral edema is more common with diffuse or membranous lupus nephritis
Diffuse lupus nephritis – Headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, or signs of cardiac decompensation
Physical findings may include the following:
Focal and diffuse lupus nephritis – Generalized active SLE with the presence of a rash, oral or nasal ulcers, synovitis, or serositis; signs of active nephritis
Active lupus nephritis – Hypertension, peripheral edema, and, occasionally, cardiac decompensation
Membranous lupus nephritis – Peripheral edema, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusions without hypertension


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