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What are the signs and symptoms of IgA nephropathy?

  What are the signs and symptoms of IgA nephropathy?
 
  In its early stages, IgA nephropathy may have no symptoms; it can be silent for years or even decades. Once symptoms appear, the most common one is hematuria, or blood in the urine. Hematuria can be a sign of damaged glomeruli. Blood in the urine may appear during or soon after a cold, sore throat, or other respiratory infection. The amount of blood may be
 
  visible with the naked eye. The urine may turn pink or the color of tea or cola. Sometimes a person may have dark or bloody urine.
 
  so small that it can only be detected using special medical tests.
 
  Another symptom of IgA nephropathy is albuminuria—when a person’s urine contains an increased amount of albumin, a protein typically found in the blood, or large amounts of protein in the urine. Albumin is the main protein in the blood. Healthy kidneys keep most proteins in the blood from leaking into the urine. However, when the glomeruli are damaged, large amounts of protein leak out of the blood into the urine.
 
  When albumin leaks into the urine, the blood loses its capacity to absorb extra fluid from the body. Too much fluid in the body may cause edema, or swelling, usually in the legs, feet, or ankles and less often in the hands or face. Foamy urine is another sign of albuminuria. Some people with IgA nephropathy have both hematuria and albuminuria.
 
  After 10 to 20 years with IgA nephropathy, about 20 to 40 percent of adults develop end-stage kidney disease.5 Signs and symptoms of end-stage kidney disease may include
 
  high blood pressure
 
  little or no urination
 
  edema
 
  feeling tired
 
  drowsiness
 
  generalized itching or numbness
 
  dry skin
 
  headaches
 
  weight loss
 
  appetite loss
 
  nausea
 
  vomiting
 
  sleep problems
 
  trouble concentrating
 
  darkened skin
 
  muscle cramps
 

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